Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is converted into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer: The two main types of transducers, these are: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power by itself. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and much more are the best samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used towards the structure, it generates an electrical charge and, when an electrical field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any type of piezo mechanism may be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and for that reason can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker over a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be according to Rotary Torque Sensor. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while decreasing the input power concurrently, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually used to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. They are sometimes used together with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with all the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to produce a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and vice versa. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when leading edge performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated under the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to give you the controller the proper information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the correct amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any type of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. In case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system using a counter mass can be integrated and driven using a signal from the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out and also the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is frequently used in fast Miniature Force Sensor for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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